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Saturday 30 June 2012

Scenario of mulberry disease of Eastern and North Eastern India

Dr. S.K. Dutta
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute,Central Silk Board, Berhampore-742101, West Bengal
Dr. Sandip  Kumar  Dutta is a senior scientist with Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central silk Board, Berhampur, India. A PhD in Mycology and Plant Pathology, Dr. Dutta has a long innings in plant pathology related research under Central Silk Board, India. Dr. Dutta can be contacted by email : and by telephone: +91 9735601099
Mulberry (Morus alba, L.) is the sole food of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx Mori L. This plant, belonging to family Moraceae is a deciduous plant. Incidence of a wide variety of diseases is one of the major hindrances for sericulture activity in Eastern and North Eastern India.
Mulberry can be grown under various climatic conditions from temperate to tropical. Among the commercially exploited mulberry varieties of Eastern and North Eastern India incidence of Powdery mildew (Phyllactinia corylea), Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas campestris p.v.mori), Pseudeocercospora leaf spot (Pseudocercopsora mori), Myrothecium leaf spot (Myrothecium roridum) and leaf rust (Peridiopsora mori) are predominant.
Beside reduction in leaf yield, these diseases reduce the quality of foliage considerably. Meteorological factors viz, Temparature, relative humidity, Rainfall etc. play a vital role in providing congenial circumstances for pathogenic multiplication and disease severity in different agro climatic zones. Intensity of disease may be positively or negatively correlated with meteorological variables. Generally disease spread through germination of spores, depending on leaf wetness. Leaf wetness depends on humidity, rainfall and dew. Wind is related with spore dispersal. In general scanty rainfall, low agricultural inputs and out break of pests and diseases are contributing factors for economic loss to farmer
A study was conducted in 10 states in the north eastern parts of India to assess Severity (PDI) of different diseases were in different climates round the year, to arrive at a set of disease calendars. Seven calendars are presented here as an outcome of the study. We believe that the calendars will be useful to farmers by enabling them to anticipate disease outbreak and take up necessary prophylactic measures against them. The diseases under study are Bacterial Leaf Spot (BLS), Pseudocercospora leaf spot (PLS), Leaf rust (LR), Myrothecium leaf spot (MLS) and Powdery mildew (PMLD).
The states and locations where the study was conducted are furnished in table 1. Table 2 , gives the disese calendar for the five diseases in various states in north eastern India. Tables 3 to 7 give the disease calendar for each disease in locations where the incidence is significant. 
Table-1: The States and locations where the study was conducted

 Table 2: Disease calendar for Eastern and North Eastern India

  Table 3: Disease calendar for Bacterial Leaf Spot
Table 4: Disease calendar for Eastern and Myrothecium Leaf spot

 Table 5: Disease calendar for Eastern and North Eastern India

 Table 6: Disease calendar for Pseudocercospora leaf spot

 Table 7: Disease calendar for Leaf Rust

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